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Research Studies and Articles

We understand how confusing and concerning raising your puppy and dog in todays world. There is so much information to process and to understand what fact from inflated false nonsense is. We spent some time gathering the data that has helped inform us on how to proceed in the world of ensuring a safe and secure process in training as well as understanding who our pup is. We hope this information albeit can be confusing can help you create the best world for your canine companion along with keeping them safe! Please be aware that the information provided here only scratches the surface, and it’s essential to note that there are numerous other sources of data available on these subjects.

Disclaimer! Here are a few pointers to be aware of when reviewing the data.

  1. Context Awareness: Be mindful of the study’s context and limitations to avoid drawing broad conclusions.
  2. Methodological Considerations: Assess the research methods employed, understanding their potential impact on results.
  3. Sample Size Caution: A small sample size may limit the generalizability of findings; consider this when interpreting results.
  4. Correlation ≠ Causation: Be cautious about inferring causation solely based on observed correlations.
  5. Publication Source: Assess the credibility of the journal or source to ensure reliability.
  6. Biases and Confounding Factors: Be aware of potential biases or confounding variables that may influence the results.
  7. Temporal Relevance: Consider the age of the research; newer studies might reflect current trends or understanding.
  8. Industry Influence: Be wary of studies funded or influenced by industries that could benefit from specific outcomes.
  9. Peer Review Status: Check if the research has undergone peer review for quality assurance.
  10. Data Interpretation: Ensure accurate interpretation of statistical significance and relevance to real-world scenarios.

I only hope that the data presented inspires you to dig deeper and to question a trainer before trusting their methods.

Spay & Neuter

We encourage you to discuss this with your vet and use the data below to help you decide on when the best time is for your pet. We know that some vets may not be up to date with the latest data and want to help you ensure your pet gets the best!

  • Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for 35 Breeds of Dogs: Associated Joint Disorders, Cancers, and Urinary Incontinence https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.00388/full
  • McGreevy et al, 2018 Behavioral risks from early castration in male dogs https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196284
  • When to Neuter Your Dog to Avoid Health Risks https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/when-should-you-neuter-your-dog-avoid-health-risks
  • A, B. and A, B., 2016. Canine Mammary Tumors: Risk Factors, Prognosis and Treatments. Journal of Veterinary Advances, 6(😎, p.1291.
  • Alenza, M., Pena, L., Castillo, N. and Nieto, A., 2000. Factors influencing the incidence and prognosis of canine mammary tumours. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 41(7), pp.287-291.
  • Arnold, S., Arnold, P., Hubler, M., Casal, M. and Rüsch, P., 1989. [Urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs: frequency and breed disposition]. Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde, 131(5), pp.259-263.
  • Baba AI, Câtoi C. Comparative Oncology. Bucharest (RO): The Publishing House of the Romanian Academy; 2007. Chapter 11, MAMMARY GLAND TUMORS. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9542/
  • Bardin, C. and Catterall, J., 1981. Testosterone: A Major Determinant of Extragenital Sexual Dimorphism. Science, 211(4488), pp.1285-1294.
  • Bakthavatchalu, V., Muthupalani, S., Marini, R. and Fox, J., 2016. Endocrinopathy and Aging in Ferrets. Veterinary Pathology, 53(2), pp.349-365.
  • Benavente, Micaela & Bianchi, Carolina & Aba, Marcelo. (2016). Canine Mammary Tumors: Risk Factors, Prognosis and Treatments.. Journal of Veterinary Advances. 6. 1291-1300.
  • Berry, S., Ewing, L., Coffey, D. and Strandberg, J., 1986. Effect of age, castration, and testosterone replacement on the development and restoration of canine benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Prostate, 9(3), pp.295-302.
  • BluePearl. n.d. Testicular Tumors in Dogs | BluePearl Pet Hospital. [online] Available at: <https://bluepearlvet.com/medical-articles-for-pet-owners/testicular-tumors-in-dogs/> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Borchelt, P., 1983. Aggressive behavior of dogs kept as companion animals: Classification and influence of sex, reproductive status and breed. Applied Animal Ethology, 10(1-2), pp.45-61.
  • Bostock, D., 1986. Canine and feline mammary neoplasms. British Veterinary Journal, 142(6), pp.506-515.
  • Brearley, M., 1989. Mammary gland tumours in the dog. In Practice, 11(6), pp.248-253.
  • Bryan, J., Keeler, M., Henry, C., Bryan, M., Hahn, A. and Caldwell, C., 2007. A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. The Prostate, 67(11), pp.1174-1181.
  • Bush, J., Gardiner, D., Palmer, J., Rajpert-De Meyts, E. and Veeramachaneni, D., 2011. Testicular germ cell tumours in dogs are predominantly of spermatocytic seminoma type and are frequently associated with somatic cell tumours. International Journal of Andrology, 34(4pt2), pp.e288-e295.
  • Casey, R., Loftus, B., Bolster, C., Richards, G. and Blackwell, E., 2013. Inter-dog aggression in a UK owner survey: prevalence, co-occurrence in different contexts and risk factors. Veterinary Record, 172(5), pp.127-127.
  • Christensen, B., 2018. Canine Prostate Disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 48(4), pp.701-719.
  • Cohen, D., Reif, J., Brodey, R. and Keiser, H., 1974. Epidemiological Analysis of the Most Prevalent Sites and Types of Canine Neoplasia Observed in a Veterinary Hospital. Cancer Research, 34, pp.2859-2868.
  • Cooley, D., Beranek, B., Schlittler, D., Glickman, N., Glickman, L. and Waters, D., 2002. Endogenous Gonadal Hormone Exposure and Bone Sarcoma Risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 11(11), pp.1434-1440.
  • D’Angelo, A., Serafina, V., Giuseppe, M. and Gabriella, F., 2012. Canine testicular tumours: A retrospective investigation in Abruzzo and Molise, Italy. Veterinaria italiana, 48(9), p.335.
  • De Battisti, A., 2012. CANINE NEUTERING: WHEN AND HOW. [online] Vet Times. Available at: <https://www.vettimes.co.uk/article/canine-neutering-when-and-how/> [Accessed 13 October 2021].
  • Driancourt, M. and Briggs, J., 2020. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonist Implants for Male Dog Fertility Suppression: A Review of Mode of Action, Efficacy, Safety, and Uses. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7.
  • Eisenegger, C., Kumsta, R., Naef, M., Gromoll, J. and Heinrichs, M., 2017. Testosterone and androgen receptor gene polymorphism are associated with confidence and competitiveness in men. Hormones and Behavior, 92, pp.93-102.
  • Farhoody, P., Mallawaarachchi, I., Tarwater, P., Serpell, J., Duffy, D. and Zink, C., 2018. Aggression toward Familiar People, Strangers, and Conspecifics in Gonadectomized and Intact Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5.
  • Ferguson, H., 1985. Canine Mammary Gland Tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 15(3), pp.501-511.
  • FirstVet. 2019. What are the pros and cons with chemical castration vs surgical castration in a male dog?. [online] Available at: <https://firstvet.com/uk/questions/488/what-are-the-pros-and-cons-with-chemical-castration-vs-surgical-castration-in-a-male-dog> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • GAMLEM, H., NORDSTOGA, K. and GLATTRE, E., 2008. Canine neoplasia – Introductory paper. APMIS, 116, pp.5-18.
  • Gobello, C. and Corrada, Y., 2001. Canine Mammary Tumors: An Endocrine Clinical Approach. Compendium, 23(😎, pp.705-710.
  • Gray, M., Meehan, J., Martínez-Pérez, C., Kay, C., Turnbull, A., Morrison, L., Pang, L. and Argyle, D., 2020. Naturally-Occurring Canine Mammary Tumors as a Translational Model for Human Breast Cancer. Frontiers in Oncology, 10, p.617.
  • Grieco, V., Riccardi, E., Greppi, G., Teruzzi, F., Iermanò, V. and Finazzi, M., 2008. Canine Testicular Tumours: a Study on 232 Dogs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 138(2-3), pp.86-89.
  • Hart, B. and Eckstein, R., 1997. The role of gonadal hormones in the occurrence of objectionable behaviours in dogs and cats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52(3-4), pp.331-344.
  • Hart, B., Hart, L., Thigpen, A. and Willits, N., 2016. Neutering of German Shepherd Dogs: associated joint disorders, cancers and urinary incontinence. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 2(3), pp.191-199.
  • Hart, B., Hart, L., Thigpen, A. and Willits, N., 2014. Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers. PLoS ONE, 9(7), p.e102241.
  • Hayes, H. and Pendergrass, T., 1976. Canine testicular tumors: Epidemiologic features of 410 dogs. International Journal of Cancer, 18(4), pp.482-487.
  • Houlihan, K., 2017. A literature review on the welfare implications of gonadectomy of dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 250(10), pp.1155-1166.
  • Howe, L., 2015. Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats. Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports, p.171.
  • Improve Veterinary Practice. 2014. Castration of dogs: reviewing the options – Veterinary Practice. [online] Available at: <https://www.veterinary-practice.com/article/castration-of-dogs-reviewing-the-options> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Jakobsen, H., Torp-Pedersen, S., Juul, N. and Hald, T., 1988. The long-term influence of vasectomy on prostatic volume and morphology in man. The Prostate, 13(1), pp.57-67.
  • Jitpean, S., Hagman, R., Ström Holst, B., Höglund, O., Pettersson, A. and Egenvall, A., 2012. Breed Variations in the Incidence of Pyometra and Mammary Tumours in Swedish Dogs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47(Suppl. 6), pp.347-350.
  • Kim, H., Yeon, S., Houpt, K., Lee, H., Chang, H. and Lee, H., 2006. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on reactivity in German Shepherd dogs. The Veterinary Journal, 172(1), pp.154-159.
  • Khuly, D., 2021. Testicular Tumors in Dogs. [online] Embrace Pet Insurance. Available at: <https://www.embracepetinsurance.com/health/testicular-tumors> [Accessed 13 October 2021].
  • Kuhne, F., 2012. Kastration von Hunden aus Sicht der Tierverhaltenstherapie [Castration of dogs from the standpoint of behaviour therapy]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere, 40(2), pp.140-145.
  • Lévy, X., Niżański, W., von Heimendahl, A. and Mimouni, P., 2014. Diagnosis of Common Prostatic Conditions in Dogs: an Update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, pp.50-57.
  • LIAO, A., CHU, P., YEH, L., LIN, C. and LIU, C., 2009. A 12-Year Retrospective Study of Canine Testicular Tumors. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 71(7), pp.919-923.
  • Llera, R., Downing, R. and Ward, E., n.d. Retained Testicle (Cryptorchidism) in Dogs. [online] vca_corporate. Available at: <https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/retained-testicle-cryptorchidism-in-dogs> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Llera, R. and Ward, E., n.d. Prostatic Disease in Dogs. [online] vca_corporate. Available at: <https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/prostatic-disease-in-dogs> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Maarschalkerweerd, R., Endenburg, N., Kirpensteijn, J. and Knol, B., 1997. Influence of orchiectomy on canine behaviour. Veterinary Record, 140(24), pp.617-619.
  • Mariposa Veterinary Wellness Center. n.d. Adrenal Disease in Ferrets | Mariposa Veterinary Wellness Center. [online] Available at: <https://www.mariposavet.com/adrenal-disease-ferrets/> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Mattos, M., Simões-Mattos, L., Farhayldes, S. and Domingues, S., 2000. CRYPTORCHIDISM IN DOG. Ciência Animal, 10(1), pp.61-70.
  • Mattravers, M., 2017. Ovary Sparing Spay in Canines: An Alternative to Traditional Ovariohysterectomy. Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine.
  • McGreevy, P., Wilson, B., Starling, M. and Serpell, J., 2018. Behavioural risks in male dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones may complicate population-control benefits of desexing. PLOS ONE, 13(5), p.e0196284.
  • McKenzie, B., 2010. Evaluating the benefits and risks of neutering dogs and cats. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 5(045).
  • Neilson, J., Eckstein, R. and Hart, B., 1997. Effects of castration on problem behaviors in male dogs with reference to age and duration of behavior. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 211(2), pp.180-182.
  • Nečas, A., Zatloukal, J., Kecová, H. and Dvořák, M., 2000. Predisposition of Dog Breeds to Rupture of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 69(4), pp.305-310.
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  • Nødtvedt, A., Gamlem, H., Gunnes, G., Grotmol, T., Indrebø, A. and Moe, L., 2010. Breed differences in the proportional morbidity of testicular tumours and distribution of histopathologic types in a population-based canine cancer registry. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 9(1), pp.45-54.
  • O’Keefe, D.A.: Tumors of the genital system and mammary glands. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Edited by: Ettinger, S.J., Fieldman, E.C., 1699-1704. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1995.
  • Ortega-Pacheco, A., Rodríguez-Buenfil, J., Segura-Correa, J., Bolio-Gonzalez, M., Jiménez-Coello, M. and Linde Forsberg, C., 2006. Pathological Conditions of the Reproductive Organs of Male Stray Dogs in the Tropics: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Morphological Findings and Testosterone Concentrations. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 41(5), pp.429-437.
  • Palestrini, C., Mazzola, S., Caione, B., Groppetti, D., Pecile, A., Minero, M. and Cannas, S., 2021. Influence of Gonadectomy on Canine Behavior. Animals, 11(2), p.553.
  • Podberscek, A. and Serpell, J., 1996. The English Cocker Spaniel: preliminary findings on aggressive behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 47(1-2), pp.75-89.
  • Pretzer, S., 2008. Clinical presentation of canine pyometra and mucometra: A review. Theriogenology, 70(3), pp.359-363.
  • Rawlinson, S., 2021. How to Ruin Your Dogs Life | Doglistener. [online] Doglistener. Available at: <https://www.doglistener.co.uk/how-ruin-your-dogs-life> [Accessed 12 October 2021].
  • Reichler, I., 2009. Gonadectomy in Cats and Dogs: A Review of Risks and Benefits. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 44, pp.29-35.
  • Reichler, I. and Hubler, M., 2014. Urinary Incontinence in the Bitch: An Update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, pp.75-80.
  • Rhae, J., 2019. The Pros and Cons of Ovary Sparing Spay (OSS) for Your Dachshund. [online] YouDidWhatWithYourWiener.com. Available at: <https://youdidwhatwithyourweiner.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-ovary-sparing-spay-oss-for-your-dachshund/> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, n.d. Mammary Tumors in Dogs. [online] Philadelphia: Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Available at: <https://www.vet.upenn.edu/docs/default-source/ryan/oncology-handouts/mammary-tumors-in-dog_ek-ks.pdf?sfvrsn=4> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Salas, Y., Márquez, A., Diaz, D. and Romero, L., 2015. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem. PLOS ONE, 10(5), p.e0127381.
  • Santos, A., Lopes, C., Ribeiro, J., Martins, L., Santos, J., Amorim, I., Gärtner, F. and Matos, A., 2013. Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study. BMC Veterinary Research, 9(1).
  • Santos, R., Silva, C., Ribeiro, A. and Serakides, R., 2000. Testicular tumors in dogs: frequency and age distribution. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 52(1), pp.25-26.
  • Schaible, L., 2020. Enlarged Prostate in Dogs: Managing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. [online] Hill’s Pet Nutrition. Available at: <https://www.hillspet.com/dog-care/healthcare/bph-and-enlarged-prostate-in-dogs> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Schneider, R., Dorn, C. and Taylor, D., 1969. Factors Influencing Canine Mammary Cancer Development and Postsurgical Survival. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 43(6), pp.1249–1261.
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  • Starling, M., Branson, N., Thomson, P. and McGreevy, P., 2013. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs. The Veterinary Journal, 197(3), pp.868-872.
  • Stoewen, D., n.d. Testicular Tumors. [online] vca_corporate. Available at: <https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/testicular-tumors> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Sundburg, C., Belanger, J., Bannasch, D., Famula, T. and Oberbauer, A., 2016. Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study. BMC Veterinary Research, 12(1).
  • Svara, Tanja & Gombac, Mitja & Pogorevc, Estera & Plavec, Tanja & Zrimšek, Petra & Pogacnik, Milan. (2014). A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CANINE TESTICULAR TUMOURS IN SLOVENIA. Slovenian Veterinary Research. 51. 81-88. 10.13140/2.1.1966.9123.
  • Teske, E., Naan, E., van Dijk, E., Van Garderen, E. and Schalken, J., 2002. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 197(1-2), pp.251-255.
  • Torres de la Riva, G., Hart, B., Farver, T., Oberbauer, A., Messam, L., Willits, N. and Hart, L., 2013. Neutering Dogs: Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers in Golden Retrievers. PLoS ONE, 8(2), p.e55937.
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  • Urfer, S. and Kaeberlein, M., 2019. Desexing Dogs: A Review of the Current Literature. Animals, 9(12), p.1086.
  • Veronesi, M., Rota, A., Battocchio, M., Faustini, M. and Mollo, A., 2009. Spaying-related urinary incontinence and oestrogen therapy in the bitch. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 57(1), pp.171-182.
  • Vendramini, T., Amaral, A., Pedrinelli, V., Zafalon, R., Rodrigues, R. and Brunetto, M., 2020. Neutering in dogs and cats: current scientific evidence and importance of adequate nutritional management. Nutrition Research Reviews, 33(1), pp.134-144.
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  • Virbac, 2021. Contraception in the Male Dog & Clinical Uses of GnRH Agonists. Available at: <https://nz.virbac.com/home/webinars/past-webinars/reproduction-webinar.html> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Wallace, M., 2001. Diagnosis and Medical Management of Canine Prostatic Disease.
  • Warnes, C., 2018. An update on the risks and benefits of neutering in dogs. The Veterinary Nurse, 9(3), pp.150-155.
  • Whitehair, J., Vasseur, P. and Willits, N., 1993. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 203(7), pp.1016-1019.
  • Ward, E. and Weir, M., n.d. Pyometra in Dogs. [online] vca_corporate. Available at: <https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/pyometra-in-dogs> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
  • Zeltzman, P. and Longenecker, C., n.d. Top 10 Reasons To Neuter Your Pet. [online] Pet Health Network. Available at: <https://www.pethealthnetwork.com/dog-health/dog-surgery-a-z/top-10-reasons-neuter-your-pet> [Accessed 15 October 2021].
Puppy Developmental Stages, Imprinting (Fear Periods), Adolescent Stage

8 to 20 weeks is a vital time in a pups life and needs structured exposure to the world. The experiences/lack of will shape your pup into a confident or fearful dog.

  • Rooney, N. J., & Cowan, S. (2021). Behavioural development in the dog: a longitudinal study across the first 6 months of life. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 237, 105337.
  • Sandri, M., & Mongillo, P. (2020). The importance of early experiences in companion animal behaviour and welfare. Veterinary Sciences, 7(2), 71.
  • Spanò, G., Diverio, S., & Pergola, G. (2020). Development of puppies’ social behaviour towards humans: A longitudinal study. Animals, 10(11), 1973.
  • Sutterby, C., Serpell, J. A., & King, T. (2019). Evaluation of the relationship between puppy classes and adulthood behavior of the dog. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 30, 41-46.
  • Van der Borg, J. A., Schilder, M. B. H., van der Ende, J., & Vinke, C. M. (2020). Socialization of young puppies in the Netherlands and the United States: comparison of current practices. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 37, 67-73.
  • Aspects of Juvenile and Adolescent Environment Predict Aggression and Fear in 12-Month-Old Guide Dogs – PMC (nih.gov)
  • Blackwell, E.J., Bradshaw, J.W., & Casey, R.A. (2013). Fear responses to noises in domestic dogs: Prevalence, risk factors and co-occurrence with other fear related behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 145(1-2), 15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.12.004
  • Landsberg, G., Hunthausen, W., & Ackerman, L. (2013). Handbook of behavior problems of the dog and cat (3rd ed.). Saunders.
  • Landsberg, G.M., & Mougeot, I. (2014). The pharmacology of canine and feline behavior. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 44(3), 561-578. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.01.002
  • Scott, J.P. & Fuller, J.L. (1965). The genetics of social behavior in dogs. Science, 148(3668), 978-1002. doi: 10.1126/science.148.3668.1002
  • Svartberg, K., Tapper, I., & Temrin, H. (2005). Consistency of personality traits in dogs. Animal Behaviour, 69(2), 283-291. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.06.011
  • Wilsson, E., & Sundgren, P.E. (1997). The use of a behaviour test for selection of dogs for service and breeding. II. Heritability for tested parameters and effect of selection based on service dog characteristics. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 54(2), 235-241. doi: 10.1016/s0168-1591(96)01163-2
  • Fear Periods and the effects: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4916180/?fbclid=IwAR0yYZ0Y-EYI5Oc00l8Qv4a5qeJ5eY6vlin8HbayKcBzZj-lb3VOMbWCMoU
  • American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior. (2021). AVSAB Position Statement on Humane Dog Training. https://avsab.ftlbcdn.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/AVSAB-Humane-Dog-Training-Position-Statement-2021.pdf
  • American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior. (2008). AVSAB Position Statement on Puppy Socializationhttps://avsab.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Puppy_Socialization_Position_Statement_Download_-_10-3-14.pdf
  • Goldman, J. G. (2012, January 11). “What is classical conditioning? (and why does it matter?).” Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved September 1, 2021 from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/thoughtful-animal/what-is-classical-conditioning-and-why-does-it-matter/
  • Hammerle, M., Horst, C., Levine, E., Overall, K., Radosta, L., Rafter-Ritchie, M., & Yin, S. (2015). 2015 AAHA canine and feline behavior management guidelines: Age and Behavior. American Animal Hospital Association. https://www.aaha.org/aaha-guidelines/behavior-management/age-and-behavior/
  • Korbelik, J., Rand, J. S., & Morton, J. M. (2011). Comparison of early socialization practices used for litters of small-scale registered dog breeders and nonregistered dog breeders. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 239(8), 1090–1097.
  • Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Socialization. In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 1, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/socialization
  • Overall, K. L. (2013). Manual of clinical behavioral medicine for dogs and cats. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Teenage dogs? Evidence for adolescent-phase conflict behaviour and an association between attachment to humans and pubertal timing in the domestic dog
    Lucy Asher, Gary C. W. England, Rebecca Sommerville and Naomi D. Harvey Biology LettersVolume 16, Issue 5 Published:13 May 2020 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0097
  • Asher et al, 2020 Adolescent-phase conflict behavior associated with human attachment https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32396785/
  • Guardini et al, 2017, Influence of Maternal care on behavior https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29206131/
Use of Slip Leads in Dogs in Training

We recognize that slip leads are a convenient and easy tool for quick access movement. We do not think a dog should be choked in order to learn how to walk.

Multi-dog Household
Aggression Studies
Dog Body Language Studies/ and Noted Authors
  • Authors
    • Turid Rugaas
    • Sarah Kalnajs
    • Barbara Handelman
    • Brenda Aloff
  • Dog Play Behavior:
    • “Play Behavior in the Domestic Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)”
    • by Rooney et al., 2000.
  • Dog Body Postures:
    • “Body Postures and Facial Expressions of Dominance in Dogs”
    • by van der Borg et al., 2015
  • Dog-Human Communication:
    • “Human–Dog Relationships: A Positive Approach Through Understanding Dog Behavior and Emotions”
    • by Wan et al., 2018
  • Understanding Canine Facial Expressions:
    • “The Dog Facial Action Coding System (DogFACS): A method for describing facial expressions in dogs”
    • by Waller et al., 2013
  • Canine Communication:
    • “Canine Communication in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris): A Meta-Analysis”
    • by Pongrácz et al., 2018
  • Use of experimenter-given cues by African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus)”
    • Author(s): Pepperberg, I. M.
    • Year: 1999
    • Purpose: While not specifically about dogs, Pepperberg’s work with African gray parrots delves into the understanding of cues and communication in non-human animals, providing insights into cognitive processes.
  • Dog–human relationship affects problem solving behavior in the dog”
    • Author(s): Horn, L., Huber, L., & Range, F.
    • Year: 2013
    • Purpose: Explores how the relationship between dogs and humans influences the dogs’ problem-solving behavior.
  • Dog growls express various contextual and affective content for human listeners”
    • Author(s): Faragó, T., Pongrácz, P., Range, F., Virányi, Z., & Miklósi, Á.
    • Year: 2010
    • Purpose: Investigates the contextual and affective content expressed in dog growls and how humans interpret them.
  • Barking in domestic dogs: Context specificity and individual identification”
    • Author(s): Molnár, C., Pongrácz, P., Faragó, T., Dóka, A., & Miklósi, Á.
    • Year: 2009
    • Purpose: Investigates the context specificity and individual identification of barking in domestic dogs.
  • Canine Communication Signals and Human Perceptions: Can We Speak the Same Language?”
    • Author(s): Siniscalchi, M., Stipo, C., Quaranta, A.
    • Year: 2013
    • Purpose: Explores the communication signals of dogs and how humans perceive and interpret these signals.
  • Canine behavior and development
Information on Harnesses
  • Note: There was a study on military dogs and their tactical gear harnesses but didn’t seem relative as the focus was on avg house families and their dogs.
  • Blog with research points: https://petozy.com/blogs/about-dogs/should-i-use-a-collar-or-a-harness-when-walking-my-dog
  • Knights, H. and Williams, J., 2021. The influence of three working harnesses on thoracic limb kinematics and stride length at walk in assistance dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 45, pp.16-24.
  • Lafuente, M.P., Provis, L. and Schmalz, E.A., 2019. Effects of restrictive and non‐restrictive harnesses on shoulder extension in dogs at walk and trot. Veterinary Record, 184(2), pp.64-64.
  • Murray, R., Guire, R., Fisher, M. and Fairfax, V., 2013. Girth pressure measurements reveal high peak pressures that can be avoided using an alternative girth design that also results in increased limb protraction and flexion in the swing phase. The Veterinary Journal,
    198(1), pp.92-97.
  • Effects of restrictive and non-restrictive harnesses on shoulder extension in dogs at walk and trot.
    Wiley (Published since 1888)
    eISSN: 2042-7670; pISSN: 0042-4900;  Biweekly
    Volume 184 | Issue 2 (January 2019)
  • Influence of Two Types of Guide Harnesses on Ground Reaction Forces and Step Length of Guide Dogs for the Blind.
    Molecular Diversity Preservation International (Published since 2011)
    eISSN: 2076-2615;  Monthly
    Volume 12 | Issue 18 (September 2022)
  • Dog Pulling on the Leash: Effects of Restraint by a Neck Collar vs. a Chest Harness.
    Frontiers Media S.A. (Published since 2014)
    eISSN: 2297-1769;  Annual continuous
    Volume 8 | (January 2021)
Shock/Prong Collar Use

A quote by Dr Ian Dunbar:
To use shock as an effective dog training method you will need:|
• A thorough understanding of canine behavior.
• A thorough understanding of learning theory.
• Impeccable timing.
And if you have those three things, you don’t need a shock collar.”

Additional points of data
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