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About Us

Technique. Follow Through. Growth.

Our mission is to empower dog owners to achieve the best possible relationship with their companion by providing unparalleled training techniques, unwavering commitment to follow-through and education, and fostering continuous growth and development for both the dog and the owner. We are committed to utilizing a fear free approach, combining nonverbal communication with enrichment and motivation to tap into your pet’s potential for achieving success and happiness for both you and your dog.



About Jonathan

With over a decade of experience in Dog Training since September of 2010, I have honed my expertise through extensive education and practical application.

During the years 2010 to 2012, I completed a rigorous 2-year hands-on training course that provided me with comprehensive knowledge in dog behavior, handling, and training working with shelter dogs. This immersive experience included 300 hours of practical teaching in group class instruction and behavioral handling.

During my years of involvement in Dog Training from 2010 to 2012, I had the honor of training a remarkable canine companion. This exceptional dog, whose training journey was under my guidance, achieved outstanding success and was featured and promoted in a prestigious Dog Fancy Magazine. Witnessing the accomplishments of this beloved canine partner brought immense pride and further reinforced my commitment to the art and science of dog training. Their recognition in the magazine stands as a testament to the effectiveness and dedication infused into my training methodologies.

In 2014, I obtained certification as a Mentor Instructor/Dog Trainer through Petco, successfully completing over 40 hours of specialized training.

Between 2016 and 2018, I had the privilege of being a part of “A New Leash for Life,” a program dedicated to training service dogs. During my time with this remarkable organization, I played a pivotal role in transforming the lives of both canines and their human companions. Through rigorous and specialized training, we honed the skills of these extraordinary service dogs, empowering them to provide invaluable assistance and support to individuals in need. This experience profoundly enriched my understanding of the impact that well-trained service dogs can have on the lives of those they serve, reinforcing my passion for dog training and its ability to create positive change.

As an approved American Kennel Club Canine Good Citizen Class Testing Evaluator since 2017, I have demonstrated my commitment to maintaining the highest standards in canine training and behavior evaluation. Additionally, in 2018, I gained approval as an American Temperament Test Evaluator, further expanding my capabilities.

In 2013, I successfully completed the “Positive Dog Training” course offered by Petco, followed by the “Mentor Trainer Instructor” course in 2014, solidifying my expertise in positive reinforcement techniques.

From 2013 to 2016, I served as a distinguished Group Obedience Dog Trainer at Petco, providing exceptional training experiences to numerous clients. During this time, I also took on the role of mentoring new hires, further demonstrating my leadership abilities and dedication to professional development.

Since 2014, I have been a committed Mentor Instructor for Animal Behavior College, guiding and shaping the next generation of aspiring dog trainers.

My professionalism and commitment to excellence have been recognized by the International Association of Canine Professionals (IACP), where I earned professional membership in 2017.

Additionally, from 2016 to 2018, I served as a Service Dog class Instructor for MOPP, contributing my skills to specialized training programs.

In 2017, I took the leap to establish my own successful Dog Training Company. My services include group obedience classes, personalized one-on-one sessions, and a boot camp board and train option, tailored to address various training needs from fundamental obedience to advanced service-level work.

With a strong emphasis on continuous improvement, I acquired Pet CPR/First Aid Certification through the Front Line Coalition in April of 2022.

Furthermore, my pursuit of excellence led me to undertake the rigorous certification exam through the IACP, culminating in the title of Certified Dog Trainer in February of 2023.

In recognition of my expertise and dedication, I was accepted into both the Association of Professional Dog Trainers (APDT) and the International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants (IAABC) in March of 2023. Subsequently, I sought and obtained the Dog Trainer Accreditation through the IAABC, solidifying my standing as a distinguished professional in the field.

I am also a proud member of the Pet Professional Guild, an organization dedicated to promoting force-free and ethical practices in the pet industry.

Continuing my commitment to advanced learning, I completed the Aggression in Dogs Master Course, created by renowned expert Michael Shikashio, in May of 2023. This venture opened a door to a world of professionals to gain input from about cases as well as being granted bi-weekly mentorship by Mr. Shikashio himself with the opportunity to evaluate client cases I have under my load.

Moreover, in June of 2023, I completed the L.E.G.S.® Applied Ethology Family Dog Mediation® Professional Course, earning the Family Dog Mediator Certification and becoming a Licensed FDM in their Dog Training division.

I am committed to helping all dogs, from reactive and aggressive individuals to bright-eyed green behind the ear’s puppies, embark on a transformative journey towards better behavior and understanding. Our approach is fueled by a relentless pursuit of knowledge and expertise, constantly elevating our skills and techniques. I firmly believe that growth in this industry is not just a goal but a necessity, ensuring the services offered meet the highest standards of dog welfare and customer satisfaction in an industry heavily unregulated.

To stay at the forefront of the industry, I’m actively pursuing additional certifications and continuous education. I believe in being a proactive learner, always seeking new insights, the latest research, and innovative approaches. I’m always learning from the dog I work with and it would be dumb of me to think I know enough to not actively challenge my understanding. My engagement with various esteemed organizations has opened doors to invaluable resources, cited peer-reviewed research, active communications with professionals I would have never dreamed of receiving feedback on cases from, and critical data that enrich my understanding and methodologies. This collaborative network also provides major support and mentorship from highly respected professionals, further enhancing the quality and effectiveness of the services I can provide.

I am dedicated to making a difference in the lives of both dogs and their owners, and I am excited to share this journey with you.

Our Partners


Megan Helwig
Megan Helwig
I highly recommend Jonathan, he is very knowledgeable and when faced with our challenging situation, he kept at it until he found the right approach/method that would work. We adopted Malia from the Humane Society and were at a loss when we could not successfully integrate her with our other dog, Lincoln. Within the first 2 weeks of training with Jonathan, Malia had been getting along with his dogs and was learning so much! He showed me videos of her playing with his dogs, I was so excited to see this and at the prospect of her being able to be like this with Lincoln. So we arranged for Lincoln and Malia to have a visit. The visit did not go well, Malia was still highly reactive and aggressive toward Lincoln. I had lost all hope that we would be able to bring her home and started looking for a new home for her. Jonathan however did not give up hope. 3 days before her training was completed, Lincoln and Malia had another visit. It was like night and day, I could not believe the tremendous progress made and I was feeling hopeful again. Bringing Malia home and re-introducing her into the family went way better than I ever expected. While they may not be BFF’s yet, they are getting along, warming up to each other and can be in the same room together. We are forever grateful for everything Jonathan did to help our girl build the skills she needed to be successful and for the time he invested in thoroughly training us on how to reinforce all the great things she learned while in his care!
Michelle Stewart
Michelle Stewart
McKinley is like a new dog after 15 days with young’s dog training! The training way exceeded our expectations. Plus Jonathan took 2 hours with us and our kids (5 & 8) at drop off to teach us how to maintain her training. An amazing experience and would recommend to everyone!!
Jill Broeker
Jill Broeker
I did the group class with my new pup and she learned so much. Jonathan does an amazing job! Class size is small and instruction is top notch, complete with handouts to utilize at home. Highly recommended! Will definitely be signing up for more sessions to build on skills already learned.
Rani Kleinlein
Rani Kleinlein
Jonathan is very thorough and extremely passionate about training. Our dogs really seemed to enjoy their time with him and he provided many updates as well as additional resource information to help us provide the best care for our dogs. The initial consultation allowed us to review the specific goals we had for training, but Jonathan exceeded our expectations. Highly recommend Jonathan’s training for puppies and adult dogs.
Toni Knoten
Toni Knoten
Jonathan’s training techniques are the best we’ve ever experienced! His patience and expertise in positive reinforcement training helped me and my husband better understand our dog. We highly recommend him!
Jennifer McCann
Jennifer McCann
Highly recommend Young’s Dog Training. Was extremely helpful and addressed multiple issues and concerns i had with my pup.
Nicole Hennekes Cato
Nicole Hennekes Cato
We brought our Goldendoodle to the puppy training class with Jonathan and she learned so much. She sits, lays down, stays, and follows commands. The training class is organized, filled with a lot of information and very well thought out. Highly recommend bringing your dog to the 6 week training class because you will walk away with a well trained dog!!!
Janet Longenecker
Janet Longenecker
My puppy, Murphy, and I have completed one six week class and are beginning another round of training with Jonathan. I cannot say enough about his approach to working with dogs and their owners. He does an excellent job providing the tools for having a happy and well behaved puppy. Our classes have been so helpful in adjusting Murphy into our home. Classes are well organized and build upon previously taught skills. Jonathan takes the time with each family to give feedback for their individual pet. If you are looking for a great start with a knowledgeable trainer, I would highly recommend Young’s Dog Training LLC.
Annette Behrens Jansen
Annette Behrens Jansen
My 6 month old Golden Doodle, Maverick just got back from Jonathan’s 30 day Boot Camp. It’s not an easy thing to do to let your puppy go away for 30 days, but Jonathan sure made it worth the time and money. He sent photos and videos periodically through the month. Not only did my dog grow physically while he was gone, he grew in maturity as well. He learned loose leash (which is still a work in progress), leave it, sit, down, let’s go, stay. When we picked him up, Jonathan spent close to 2 hours teaching my family how to work with Maverick and demonstrating for us…answering my endless stream of questions. He was a submissive pee’er, which I have not seen him do one time since he has been back. He was scared of situations he was not familiar with…he still is, but it doesn’t take nearly as long to convince him he is ok. I am a therapist and plan to continue training with Jonathan to hopefully get Maverick to the point of being a therapy dog. I have brought him into work a couple times with me already, and have been complimented by many on his manners. Now I just need to get better at working with him!! Thanks Jonathan for all that you have done and I can’t wait to work more with you!
Jane Baumgartner
Jane Baumgartner
Jonathan’s puppy training class was so helpful! He came prepared every class with points of focus and my pup Frankie responded very positively! I dropped the ball with doing my homework during the week because I know that would’ve made all the difference! Overall, I was very happy and satisfied with the skills and training from this class and I would highly recommend him for any type of dog obedience class! Times/location were quite convenient as well!


Do you offer Group Obedience classes?

At Youngs Dog Training, we understand that every dog is unique and has specific needs. That’s why we offer a variety of group obedience classes tailored to your dog’s life stage. Our starter classes provide the foundation for basic training, manners, and proper behavior, while our advanced courses are designed to help you and your pup continue to grow and reach their full potential. Our experienced trainer uses positive reinforcement techniques to ensure a safe and enjoyable learning experience for both you and your dog. We are dedicated to helping you achieve success and happiness with your furry companion. Sign up today and take the first step towards a well-trained and well-behaved dog

Does Day Camp Training have a set curriculum?

Day Camp Training is a highly effective method for achieving results with your dog. Our approach combines the best of bootcamp training and owner-focused sessions to provide your dog with focused one-on-one attention from an experienced trainer. The curriculum is tailored to your specific needs and goals, and the individual lessons are designed to teach you how to follow through with the training at home. This approach is vital for the success of the course, as environmental management plays a major role in training. Our day camp training program has helped many dogs and owners achieve success and happiness. Sign up today and give your dog the gift of a well-trained and well-behaved companion.”

How does DayCamp training work?

Yes, Day Camp training is a highly effective method for achieving results with your dog. The program is designed to give your dog focused one-on-one attention with an experienced trainer, working through the desired cues and behaviors set within the curriculum. The program also includes owner-focused sessions that teach you how to follow through with the training at home and reinforce what was taught each day during the night and weekends. The individual lessons are vital for the success of the course as the major element of training is environmental management. This approach allows for the dog to be trained in real-life scenarios and transfer the learned behaviors to their daily life and routine. This comprehensive approach has been proven to be effective in achieving success and happiness for both the dog and the owner.

Which training option is best for me and my dog: Bootcamp, Daycamp, Owner-Focused Sessions, or Group Classes?

Bootcamp Board and Train: This option is best for those who have a busy lifestyle and limited time. The trainer will do the heavy lifting and help your puppy adjust to the human world. This option is best for those who want their dog to learn quickly and efficiently with minimal involvement from the owner. We prioritize the owners role by educating and spending time with them to help them learn how to reinforce and continue their pup/dogs development

Day Camp Training: This option is a great balance between owner involvement and professional training. It is ideal for those who have a busy schedule but still want to be involved in the training process. The trainer will work with your dog during the day and you’ll follow through with the training at home. This option allows for daily feedback and focus from the trainer as your puppy learns and grows with the training.

Owner-Focused or Group Classes: This option is best for those who have time on their hands, want to learn, and want to be the primary trainer of their dog. These classes are focused on teaching owners how to communicate and get the desired responses from their dog within their home and social life.

Ultimately, the choice depends on your lifestyle, the specific goals you have for your dog, and how much time and involvement you are willing to commit to the training process. It’s important to consider your personal situation and choose the option that will work best for you and your dog.

Pickup and delivery times

We want this to be easy for you – we will set up a time that best works with your schedule for picking up and dropping off your pet.

Extra fees?

Dog food is provided by you during training, with all excess returned back with dog upon completion. Any extra food required will be added to invoice upon returning your pup. Brand/type can be selected by pet parent or chosen by us!

Veterinarian visits: We will take your pet to all scheduled vaccines appts and regular wellness checks while in our care. The client can set up appointments at their preferred office or we can take your pet to our vet (Animal Talk, Wentzville MO). We will discuss with you any required vet fees, share all vet recommendations in the situation for you to make the best decision on what you want to spend during those visits. We will cover the cost during the training and add it to the end bill or you can prepay. Whichever is more convenient for you.

Do I need to make an appointment?

We welcome you to call or email and ask any questions. If you decide to set up a training session/package, we will schedule a consultation with your pet that works best with your schedule to establish training end result expectations.

Can I bring my own food?

Absolutely – in fact, we encourage it. If however, you would like us to take care of your dog’s food needs, we can gladly do that as well. Any money spent will get added to the end bill.

Can my dog be taken to my preferred grooming salon?

Yes, we are more than happy to travel to your stylist to ensure your puppy gets the best care during his/her bath and cut.

Is puppy/dog bootcamp worth the investment?

Yes and no, If you are the hands on type that enjoys being apart of every moment and doing the teaching yourself then group or owner focused might be the best route for you. For those who have a busy chaotic life yes the trainer does all the hard work teaching the concepts and you just reinforce when they come home. Enrolling your puppy at 8 weeks sets them up for continued success with constant dog-to-dog socialization. Home and work life can be chaotic and limits the invested time needed to guide an attention craved puppy as they explore and discover all the scents and textures our home and outside world have to offer. Having a professional trainer guiding your pup in a structured environment increases their response to making non destructive decisions, establishing coping mechanisms such as teaching a leave it (lose interest in the cable cord, pizza/burger on the table, shoes in the closet.) sit for attention instead of jumping and clawing. Polite leash mannerisms compared to excessive arm pulling during walks. Trainers can recognize initial fear responses that sometimes get coddled by owners to avoid reinforcing and developing an avoidance or fear to seeing or hearing the trash can, vacuum, or person riding the bicycle down the sidewalk among other things.

Board and train – Is there any training for me and will it matter if I’m not involved in the actual training?

Yes, on the day of drop-off, we will spend between 1 to 3 hours going over everything the puppy/dog has learned, offering demonstrations and answering any and all additional questions you may have. You have a busy life and we know how excited you both will be to be back together so to help prep you we’ll send out a packet a week prior to coming home that details all the cues learned; how they were taught, and the temporary adjustments needed in your home environment to ensure success. The puppy/ dog will still need follow-up from you when she/he comes home. But this is nowhere near the same as a puppy who has learned nothing and has no clue what your expectations are of them within the home. The difference here, is the puppy has already tackled the learning and figuring-out part and all you are doing now is building a bond and showing the puppy that it applies in this home as well.

Bootcamp training offers a variety of benefits for puppies and dogs. Some of the key benefits include:
  • – Dog-to-dog socialization, which helps puppies and dogs develop social skills and become more well-adjusted companions.
  • – Constant body handling, which helps prevent paw or tail sensitivities and promotes a positive association with being touched and handled.
  • – Exposure to different people, places, and things, which helps decrease unexpected fear responses and helps puppies and dogs develop a well-adjusted mindset during the critical fear and socialization stages.
  • – Learning basic cues such as sit, leave it, come, and proper behavior in different situations such as greeting people, potty training and crate training.
  • – Teaching your dog to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate objects to chew on and play with.
  • – Promoting a healthy mindset and behavior towards the house rules and routine, which will make the transition to the new home a lot smoother.
  • – Consistency in training: Bootcamp provides consistent training, which helps dogs learn and retain commands and behaviors more effectively.
  • – Professional guidance: Bootcamp is led by experienced trainers who have the knowledge and expertise to address any issues or concerns that may arise during the training process.
  • – Time-efficient: Bootcamp is an intensive training program that covers a lot of ground in a short amount of time, making it a time-efficient option for busy owners.
  • – Customizable: Bootcamp training can be tailored to fit the specific needs and goals of your dog and your household.
Will my dog lose the bond with me if they attend bootcamp?

Rest assured, your dog will not forget about you while they are at bootcamp. Our trainers use positive reinforcement techniques and work closely with owners to ensure that the bond between dog and owner is maintained and strengthened during the training process. Many bootcamp programs include regular updates, progress reports, and video calls between the trainer and the owner to keep them informed of their dog’s progress, what they are learning and how they are doing. This helps the owner stay connected to their dog and understand their dog’s behavior, needs, and motivations better. Additionally, bootcamp programs often include owner training sessions where the owner is taught how to communicate effectively with their dog, how to reinforce the commands and behaviors learned during bootcamp and how to work with their dog to achieve their goals. This allows the owner to actively participate in the training process, build the bond with their dog and develop the skills to continue working with their dog after the bootcamp is over. In summary, even though the dog is not physically with the owner during bootcamp, there are still ways for the owner to stay connected to their dog and continue building the bond between them.

What is L.I.M.A. Compliant you might ask, check below. “Information pulled from the APDT’s Website. Note LIMA was developed as a guideline to guide trainers who heavily use prong and shock collars to start considering training methods that are kinder and gentler.

What Is LIMA?

“LIMA” is an acronym for the phrase “least intrusive, minimally aversive”. LIMA describes a trainer or behavior consultant who uses the least intrusive, minimally aversive strategy out of a set of humane and effective tactics likely to succeed in achieving a training or behavior change objective with minimal risk of producing aversive side effects. LIMA adherence also requires consultants to be adequately educated and skilled in order to ensure that the least intrusive and aversive procedure is used. 1

LIMA does not justify the use of punishment in lieu of other effective interventions and strategies. In the vast majority of cases, desired behavior change can be affected by focusing on the animal’s environment, physical well-being, and operant and classical interventions such as differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior, desensitization, and counter-conditioning.

LIMA Is Competence-Based

LIMA requires trainers/consultants to work to increase the use of positive reinforcement and eliminate the use of punishment when working with animal and human clients. In order to ensure best practices, consultants should pursue and maintain competence in animal behavior consulting and training through continuing education, and hands-on experience. Trainers/consultants should not advise on problems outside the recognized boundaries of their competencies and experience. 2

Positive Reinforcement and Understanding the Learner

Positive reinforcement should be the first line of teaching, training, and behavior change program considered, and should be applied consistently. Positive reinforcement is associated with the lowest incidence of aggression, attention seeking, avoidance, and fear in learners. 3

Only the learner determines what may be reinforcing. It is crucial that the trainer/consultant understands and has the ability to appropriately apply this principle. This fact may mean that the trainer/consultant assesses any handling, petting, food, tool, and environment each time the learner experiences them. Personal bias must not determine the learner’s experience. The measure of each stimulus is whether the learner’s target behavior is strengthening or weakening, not the trainer/consultant’s intent or preference.

Systematic Problem Solving and Strategies

The trainer/consultant is responsible for ensuring learner success through a consistent, systematic approach that identifies a specific target behavior, the purpose of that behavior, and the consequences that maintain the behavior.

A variety of learning and behavior change strategies may come into play during a case. Ethical use of this variety always depends on the trainer/consultant’s ability to adequately problem solve and to understand the impact of each action on the learner, as well as sensitivity toward the learner’s experience.

Preventing Abuse

We seek to prevent the abuses and potential repercussions of inappropriate, poorly applied, and inhumane uses of punishment and of overly-restrictive management and confinement strategies. The potential effects of punishment can include aggression or counter-aggression; suppressed behavior (preventing the trainer/consultant from adequately reading the animal); increased anxiety and fear; physical harm; a negative association with the owner or handler; increased unwanted behavior; and, new, unwanted behaviors. 5

Choice and Control for the Learner

LIMA guidelines require that trainer/consultants always offer the learner as much control and choice as possible. Trainer/consultants must treat each individual of any species with respect and awareness of the learner’s individual nature, preferences, abilities, and needs. 6

What Do You Want the Animal to do?

We focus on reinforcing desired behaviors, and always ask the question, “What do you want the animal to do?” Relying on punishment in training does not answer this question, and therefore offers no acceptable behavior for the animal to learn to replace the unwanted behavior. These LIMA guidelines do not justify the use of aversive methods and tools including, but not limited to, the use of electronic, choke or prong collars in lieu of other effective positive reinforcement interventions and strategies.

When making training and behavior modification decisions, trainers/consultants should understand and follow the Humane Hierarchy of Behavior Change – Procedures for Humane and Effective Practices7 outlined in the diagram.

For these reasons, we, strongly support the humane and thoughtful application of LIMA protocols, and we applaud those individuals and organizations working with animals and humans within LIMA guidelines.


The Humane Hierarchy serves to guide professionals in their decision-making process during training and behavior modification. Additionally, it assists owners and animal care professionals in understanding the standard of care to be applied in determining training practices and methodologies and the order of implementation for applying those training practices and methodologies.

Hierarchy of Procedures for Humane and Effective Practice

1.Health, nutritional, and physical factors: Ensure that any indicators for possible medical, nutritional, or health factors are addressed by a licensed veterinarian. The consultant should also address potential factors in the physical environment.
2.Antecedents: Redesign setting events, change motivations, and add or remove discriminative stimuli (cues) for the problem behavior.
3.Positive Reinforcement: Employ approaches that contingently deliver a consequence to increase the probability that the desired behavior will occur.
4.Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior: Reinforce an acceptable replacement behavior and remove the maintaining reinforcer for the problem behavior.
5.Negative Punishment, Negative Reinforcement, or Extinction (these are not listed in any order of preference):
a)Negative Punishment – Contingently withdraw a positive reinforcer to reduce the probability that the problem behavior will occur.b)Negative Reinforcement – Contingently withdraw an aversive antecedent stimulus to increase the probability that the right behavior will occur.c)Extinction – Permanently remove the maintaining reinforcer to suppress the behavior or reduce it to baseline levels.
6.Positive Punishment: Contingently deliver an aversive consequence to reduce the probability that the problem behavior will occur.

Useful Terms

Intrusiveness refers to the degree to which a procedure affects the learners control. With a less intrusive procedure, a learner retains more control. The goal of LIMA is for its trainers/consultants to determine and use the least intrusive effective intervention which will effectively address the target behavior. In the course of an experienced trainer/consultant’s practice, he or she may identify a situation in which a relatively more intrusive procedure is necessary for an effective outcome. In such a case, a procedure that reduces the learner’s control may be the least intrusive, effective choice.

Additionally, wellness is at the top of the hierarchy to ensure that a trainer/consultant does not implement a learning solution for behavior problems due to pain or illness. The hierarchy is a cautionary tool to reduce both dogmatic rule following and practice by familiarity or convenience. It offers an ethical checkpoint for consultants to carefully consider the process by which effective outcomes can be most humanely achieved on a case-by-case basis. The hierarchy is intended to be approached in order for each case. Rationale like, “It worked with the last case!” is not appropriate. The evaluation and behavior change program of every animal should be a study of the individual (i.e., individual animal, setting, caregiver, etc.). Changing behavior is best understood as a study of one.


APDT takes the stance that there are no training or behavior cases which justify the use of intentional aversive punishment-based interventions in any form of training ranging from general obedience and tricks to dealing with severe behavior problems. This is in agreement with the American Veterinary Society for Animal Behavior 8 and available literature. Trainers who use aversive tools such as choke collars, prong collars, shock collars (including “stim-collars” and “e-collars”), bonkers, shaker-cans, citronella spray, water spray, leash-pop/leash-corrections (with any type of collar/harness), yelling, or any other technique designed to cause fear, pain, or startle in the dog are not practicing LIMA as described and used within APDT. Trainers who are unable to train a specific behavior or to a specific outcome without resorting to aversive techniques should use resources such as the APDT community pages to contact and work with trainers who do.


1 Steven Lindsay, Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training Vol 3 pgs. 29 & 726.

2 Per the IAABC, APDT and CCPDT Joint Code of Conduct

3 “[The] use of positive reinforcement alone was associated with the lowest mean scores (attention- seeking score 0.33; fear (avoidance) score 0.18; aggression score 0.1). The highest mean attention-seeking score (0.49) was found in dogs whose owners used a combination of positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. The highest mean avoidance score (0.31) was found in dogs whose owners used a combination of all categories of training method. Owners using a combination of positive reinforcement and positive punishment had dogs with the highest mean aggression score (0.27).” Emily J. Blackwell, Caroline Twells, Anne Seawright, Rachel A. Casey, The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs, Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, Volume 3, Issue 5, September–October 2008, Pages 207-217, ISSN 1558-7878,

5 See • Hutchinson RR. 1977. By-products of aversive control. In: Honig WK, Staddon JER, eds. Handbook of Operant Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall: 415-431.• Azrin NH. 1960. Effects of punishment intensity during variable-interval reinforcement. J Exp Analysis Behav 3: 123-142.• Azrin NH, Holz WC, Hake DR. 1963. Fixed-ratio punishment. J Exp Analysis Behav 6: 141-148. • Pauli AM, Bentley E, Diehl AK, Miller PE. 2006. Effects of the application of neck pressure by a collar or harness on intraocular pressure in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 42(3): 207-211. • Drobatz KJ, Saunders HM, Pugh CR, Hendricks JC. 1995. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs and cats: 26 cases (1987-1993). J Am Vet Med Assoc 206: 1732-1736. • Azrin NH, Rubin HB, Hutchinson RR. 1968. Biting attack by rats in response to aversive shock. J Exp Analysis Behav 11: 633-639.

6 Brambell’s Five Freedoms, used as animal and human welfare guidelines:

   • Freedom from hunger or thirst by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor
   • Freedom from discomfort by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area
   • Freedom from pain, injury or disease by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment
   • Freedom to express (most) normal behavior by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind
   • Freedom from fear and distress by ensuring conditions and treatment that avoids mental suffering

7 S. Friedman, What’s Wrong with this Picture? Effectiveness is Not Enough, APDT Journal March/April 2010

8 Position statement on humane dog training … – (n.d.). Retrieved from

PDF version with Humane Hierarchy

LIMA Frequently Asked Questions

Accordion item 1

We encourage you to learn more about the local animal rescue and adoption organizations we support.

SPCA, non-profit animal welfare organizations around the world

PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals